The combustion chamber is a part of the internal combustion engine where the air and fuel mixture is burned. It comprises of several components including engine cylinder, piston and cylinder head.
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How it Works
The piston performs intake stroke hence opening the intake valve. It moves away from the combustion chamber allowing atmospheric pressure to push the fuel-air mixture into the chamber.
As the piston goes downwards, the fuel enters the combustion chamber through the fuel injector. Then the piston starts moving upwards in the cylinder bore. The intake valve closes sealing the combustion chamber to enable the piston to make compression. Ignition system ignites the chamber when the piston is at the top. The fuel air mixture burns to cause an explosion which pushes the piston downwards creating power.
The chamber holds fuel charge to be burned. The fuel enters the combustion chamber during suction stroke where it is ignited during a power stroke to produce power. So the main function of the combustion chamber is holding fuel before and after combustion. The power is transferred to the connecting rod and eventually to the transmission system.
In the diesel engine, we have two categories of the combustion chamber which are:
- Direct injection combustion chamber
- Separate combustion chamber
Direct injection combustion chamber
In this type of combustion chamber, the diesel is injected into combustor using a porous injector. The combustible gas is formed by matching the shape of fuel jet with combustor shape and swirl air motion in the combustion chamber. The best feature in a direct injection combustion chamber is that it uses an inlet port located at the cylinder head to make a swirl as it enters the cylinder to enhance air and fuel mixing.
Separate combustion chamber
Separate combustion chamber consists of two parts, the main cylinder and auxiliary combustion chamber. The main combustion chamber is located between the piston top and cylinder head bottom. The auxiliary combustion chamber is located in the cylinder head. One or more channels connect the two chambers. Depending on the auxiliary combustor structure and volume distribution chamber, separate combustor can be split into a precombustion chamber and swirl chamber.
Problems in the combustion chamber
Fuel/air mixture is heated under high temperatures in the combustion chamber. The fuel injectors get clogged after some time. Consequently, the combustion chamber is filled with carbon deposits. The carbon deposit buildup can cause serious engine problems if not cleaned. Cleaning the engine helps to flush out the deposits which affect engine performance. Additionally, it restores the engine power, reduces emissions and prevents potentially expensive engine repairs.
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